Common Sense Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry 2

Organic Chemistry 2 General Outline and Index

Organic Chemistry 2

 

General Outline & Index:

Resonance and π-systems

  • Conjugation and Heats of Hydrogenation

Aromatic, Anti-Aromatic, & Non-Aromatic

  • Huckel’s Rule (4n+2)
  • Nomenclature of Substituted Benzenes & their Intractable Common Names

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (SEAr)

  • Activation and De-activation
  • Regiochemistry around Benzene; Directing Groups (R and I effects)
  • Arenium Cation
  • Synthesis of Polysubstituted Benzene Rings
    • Halogenation
    • Sulfonation
    • Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
    • Friedel-Crafts Acylation
    • Nitration
    • Diazotization
    • Smiles Rearrangement
  • Sandmeyer Reaction

Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (SNAr)

  • Conditions Amenable for SNAr
  • Meisenheimer Intermediates
  • Benzyne
    • Kine Products

Oxidation and Reduction Reactions

  • Dissolving Metal Reductions
  • Catalytic Hydrogenation
  • Oxidation and Transition Metals

Ketones and Aldehydes

  • Carbon Nucleophiles
    • Grignard Reaction
    • Cyanohydrin Synthesis
  • Nitrogen Nucleophiles β
    • Imines
    • Alkylimines
    • Enamines
  • Oxygen Nucleophilesβ
  • Keto-Enol Tautomerization

Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and Carbonyl (Acyl) Substitution

  • Acid Halides
  • Acid Anhydrides
  • Esters
    • Lactones
  • Amides
    • Latams
  • Nitriles
  • Acidic and Basic Mechanisms for Acid Derivatives & Hydrolysis

Reactions at the α-Carbon

  • pKa Ranges for the Carbonyl Compounds
  • Enols and Enolates
  • Aldol Reaction
  • Aldol Condensation
  • α-Halogenation/alkylation
  • α,β-unsaturation carbonyl compounds (enones and enoates)
  • β-oxo and β-hydroxy Carbonyl Compounds
  • α,β-unsaturation carbonyl compounds (enones and enoates)
  • The Michael Reaction (Conjugate addition reactions)
  • HSAB (Hard/Soft Acid Base Theory)
  • Claisen Condensation
  • Decarboxylation
  • Dieckmann Condensation
  • Robinson Annulation

Pericyclic Reactions

  • Molecular Orbitals and Aromatic Transitions States (Hückel’s Rule revisited)
  • The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry
  • Cycloaddition Reactions
    • The Diels-Alder [4+2] Reaction
    • The Retro-Diels-Alder Reaction
    • The Alder Endo Rule
    • Fused Polycyclic Compounds and their Nomenclature
  • Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    • The Cope Rearrangement
    • The Claisen Rearrangement
  • Stereoselectivity of Antara- and Suprafacial Migration
  • Electrocyclization Reactions
    • Stereocontrol during 6π-ERC
      • Conrotation and Disrotation

Carbohydrates & Sugars

  • Aldoses
  • Ketoses
  • The Anomeric Carbon
  • Pyranoses
  • Furanoses
  • Alditols
  • Aldaric Acids
  • The Fischer Proof of the Absolute Configuration of (D)-Glyceraldehyde
  • Kiliani-Fischer Reaction
  • Osazones
  • Tollen’s Reagent
  • Haworth Projections (pronounced like Hayworth)
  • Ruff Degradation

The Anomeric Effect (Negative Hyperconjugation)

  • Stereoelectronic Effects between π and p-type orbitals with σ* orbitals (filled→empty)
  • Glycosidic Linkages and their Terminology

Fats and Lipids

  • Saponification
  • Triglycerides, Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids & Cholesterol
  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and their Common Names

Amino Acids and Proteins

  • Peptide Synthesis
  • The Polypeptide bond, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, & Quaternary Structure
  • Enzymes and the Active Site
  • pH gradient gel Electrophoresis
  • pKa and pI

Nucleotides, Nucleosides, DNA & RNA

  • Purines and Pyrimidines
  • Nucleotide Analogues & Pharmacology
  • Transcription
  • Translation

Organic Chemistry 2

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